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ISSN : 1229-6457(Print)
ISSN : 2466-040X(Online)
The Korean Journal of Vision Science Vol.23 No.4 pp.535-541

Analysis of Interrelationship between Optician Job and Current National Licensing Examination

Sung-Soo Kang1), Ji-Young Lee1), Jeong-Hee Eum2), Mi-Jung Park3), Koon-Ja Lee4), Sang-Chul Park5), Ji-Won Jung1)
1)Dept. of Optometry, Suseong University, Professor, Daegu
2)Dept. of Optometry, Masan University, Professor, Masan
3)Dept. of Optometry, Seoul Nat’l Univ. of Science and Technology, Professor, Seoul
4)Dept. of Optometry, Eulji University, Professor, Sungnam
5)Dept. of Optometry, Pusan Institute of Science and Technology, Professor, Pusan
* Address reprint requests to Ji-Won Jung ( Dept. of Optometry, Suseong University, Daegu
TEL: +82-53-749-7266, E-mail:
November 5, 2021 December 24, 2021 December 24, 2021


Purpose : The aim of the study is to analyze the job of an optician to find out the connectivity with the subjects of the national licensing examination, and to provide the basic data needed for the test subjects proportion and the development of college curriculum.

Methods : A questionnaire consisting of 5 item duties areas and 18 item tasks was surveyed and analyzed for 872 opticians and 99 optician professors.

Results : From the analysis of the opticians’ job, knowledge and skills, which are necessary skills, were derived in the areas where both the importance and necessity of work were high, such as eyeglass preparation processing (39.1%), eye examination (27.5%), contact lenses (14.8%), and others (18.6%), compared with the primary job analysis of opticians in 2000. It was found that the job of opticians was moved to the field of optometrists.

Conclusion : Changes in the optician's job should be appropriately reflected in the national examination for opticians and the curriculum of universities.

안경사 직무와 현행 국가시험의 상관관계 분석

강 성수1), 이 지영1), 엄 정희2), 박 미정3), 이 군자4), 박 상철5), 정 지원1)
1)수성대학교 안경광학과, 교수, 대구
2)마산대학교 안경광학과, 교수, 마산
3)서울과학기술대학교 안경광학과, 교수, 서울
4)을지대학교 안경광학과, 교수, 성남
5)부산과학기술대학교 안경광학과, 교수, 부산

    Ⅰ. Introduction

    The optician in our country performs glasses and contact lens prescription and sales, eye examination, ophthalmic dispensing and is defined as a health care professional contributing to promoting the health of the eyes and vision of the population. In overseas, the job of optician is subdivided into optometrist, optometric technician and optician.1)

    In Korea, an eye care system that encompasses all three jobs in a foreign country is operating and such a comprehensive optician job is being reflected in the national licensing examination and each optometry college curriculum as well.2-5) The standard of test items development on the optician national examination through a job analysis has been researched continuously and settled down to the current system. The optician job will require constant change according to the changes of social environment in the future. As the change of job affects sequentially optician national examination and the curriculum of the college of optometry, optician job analysis and review linked with the social environment may be constantly needed.5)

    In this study, we conducted a survey targeting professors in the education field and opticians in the industry to investigate the change of perception of optician jobs and to provide basic data for the optician national examination and college curriculum improvement in the future.

    Ⅱ. Methods

    1. Study design

    The survey was conducted by a structured questionnaire with a reliability 0.983 points (Cronbach α) targeting 872 opticians in each region across the country (return rates 75.8%) and 99 professors of optometry (return rates of 66.0%, the rates of optician's license holder 54.3%).

    2. Materials and subjects

    The work experience of 872 opticians participated in the survey showed that more than seven years, 354 (41.6%), more than one to three years, 219 (25.1%), more than three to five years, 134 (15.7%) and more than five to seven years, 144 (16.9%). The work experience of 99 professors of optometry showed that more than seven years, 71 (72.4%), more than five to seven years, 12 (12.2%), more than three to five years, 10 (10.2%) and more than one to three years, 5 (5.1%).

    The questionnaires are dived into 5 job areas (7 areas in the primary job analysis of opticians) and 18 tasks (22 tasks in the primary job analysis of opticians) and consisted of items classified according to the importance of task performance, education need and task difficulty. Job area and task based on the primary job analysis of optician are classified newly reflecting contemporary and environmental changes of optical shop and college.

    3. Statistics

    The significance of general characteristics, the importance of task performance, task difficulty and education need of the respondents was evaluated by χ2-test and the statistical significance level were determined by p<0.050.

    Ⅲ. Results

    The continuous change of opticians' job is predictable because of rapid changes in the social environment such as the diversification of the industrial society, the increase of the aged population (2013 currently, 12.2%) due to the development of medical technology, the enhancement of quality of life and so on, and the increase of optical shop (2013 currently, 8,813 shops).

    The importance and need of items consisting of 5 duties, 18 tasks and 81 elements are investigated for the survey in this study.6)

    The survey result is shown in Fig. 1. The importance and need of job are included in the questionnaire as a whole showed a linearly proportional relationship. The above area of the importance average (4.26 points) and the need average (4.14 points) is the same as Table 1. Knowledge and skills as the required ability to carry out a task element on the basis of the area showed that the proportion of visual test was 27.5%, dispensing 39.1%, contact lenses 14.8%, and the other 18.6%.

    Fig. 2. is the job analysis result of opticians in 2000. The optician job was evaluated by the importance and frequency of 7 duties, 22 tasks and 94 elements classified. 251 opticians across the country in 2000 were examined in this study to analyze the survey results and 94 elements classified by the job analysis showed the importance of task 2.19 point and the frequency of tasks 2.29 point on average using a 3 point scale. The importance and frequency of task established a proportional relationship. Both of the knowledge and skill limited to the areas above the average7) were divided to sub-items such as the dispensing, visual test, contact lens field, and analyzed to visual test 13.9%, dispensing 58.1%, contact lenses 21.3% and others 6.7% as the results (Table 2). The result at that time showed that the job of optician was more inclined to the work of foreign optician and meant that the job of optician was more important than that of optometrists for the participants. These results reflected a much higher proportion of dispensing (29.0%) than the visual test-related subjects (5.9%) in the national licensing examination.

    Comparing this study with the results of primary job analysis in 2000, the proportion of visual tests increased (+13.6%) and the proportion of dispensing (-19%) decreased significantly.8) It is judged that this change reflected the result of changes in opticians’ perception of the importance of binocular vision tests, vision therapy sections and the development of automated dispensing equipment.

    Therefore, There is a need to adjust and improve the proportion of visual tests and dispensing in the national licensing examination and the curriculum of optometry in the future.

    Table 3 shows the result of the proportion of the required ability for duty based on jobs analysis in 2013. Secondary job analysis of optician comparing with primary one showed that the duty of optometrist related to ‘A. preliminary test for binocular correction’ and ‘B. test for binocular correction’ increased by 14%, 1.6% each. The duty of opticians is closely related to ‘D. dispensing of visual correction apparatus’ and ‘E. follow up and management’ decreased by 5.7%, 10.0% each.

    As the proportion of subjects in current national licensing examination compared with primary job analysis of optician is dispensing 21.6%, visual test (refraction, binocular vision) 18.8%, contact lens 10.8% and other subjects 48.8%, dispensing decreased 7.4%, visual test increased 15.7%, the job analysis result of opticians is reflected in much of the national licensing examination.

    Ⅳ. Discussion

    Optician jobs and the connection of jobs were investigated and analyzed in order to provide the basis for the proportion of subjects in the national licensing examination and the development of the college curriculum.

    Optician job was analyzed in 5 duties, 18 tasks and 81 elements, and knowledge and skills as the required ability for task derived from a high area of the importance and need in the job analysis of optician were analyzed to dispensing (39.1%), visual test (27.5%), contact lens (14.8%) and others (18.6%). Compared with primary job analysis in 2001, the results showed that the job area of optician moved much to that of optometrists.8)

    Occupational therapists have identified the core practical competencies through a study on deriving and evaluating the core practical competencies and reflected them in the national exam practical subjects for the occupation, suggesting that there is a significant correlation with job competency in the field.9,10)

    Therefore, the changes in optician jobs should be reflected appropriately in the national examination and applied to the curriculum of a college education. Further study will be carried out in 2022.


    This work is supported by the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board of Korea (Fundref ID: RE02-1603-17) research fund (2014).



    Job analysis of optician based on secondary survey (2013).


    Job analysis of optician based on primary survey (2000).


    The survey result of task elements

    The changes in the importance of optician jobs between primary and secondary survey

    The proportion of required ability for duty based on job analysis 2013


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